“And the men which were expressed by name rose up, and took the captives, and with the spoil clothed all that were naked among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble of them upon asses, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm trees, to their brethren: then they returned to Samaria” (2 Chr. 28:15).

In 2 Chronicles, chapter 28, the Lord describes how the leaven of Ahaz spread to all Judah so the people of Judah spoiled their own wardrobe like the wicked northern nation of Israel.  It is a very short chapter with only twenty-seven verses.  We learn that Ahaz was a son of Jotham and the 11th king of Judah (2 Kings 15:38,16). He was an ungodly king who promoted the worship of Molech, with its pagan rites of human sacrifice (2 Chr. 28:1-4).  Judah worshipped molten images of Baalim and offered their own children as sacrifices to false gods in the valley of Hinnom.  What was God’s response?  He delivered them into the hands of the king of Syria, who “smote them” and carried the multitude away as captives to Damascus.

God also delivered them into the hands of the king of Israel, who slaughtered many.  The children of Israel carried away captive of their own brethren, 200,000 women, sons and daughters of the slaughtered men and took much spoil before they brought them to Samaria.  Amazing as it may seem, a prophet of the Lord was there whose name was Oded, who told them plainly that God had delivered Judah into their hands because He was angry with them; however, God’s wrath would be upon Israel if they did not let them go free.  Israel had purposed to keep the people of Judah for slaves, but Oded reminded them of their own wickedness and how they had better show mercy to Judah.

Certain of the leaders stood up against the Israelite army and warned them they also were in jeopardy of being punished the same way because of their own sins.  If they added this evil to their record, they surely would bring wrath from the Lord upon the entire nation.  With a complete change of heart, the army of Israel left the captives and the spoil in front of the princes and all the congregation of the Israelite people and went to correct this grievous error.  What did they do?  They took the spoil they had taken in battle and used it to clothe the captive women, children and old people and carry them back to their homes.  Who ever heard of such?  They took that same spoil, which their victorious army had brought away, to clothe, feed, shoe, and anoint, these distressed people, set the feeblest of them upon asses, and escort them safely to Jericho.

God had delivered Judah into the hands of their enemies because their king had made them to sin.  He humbled them and made them naked before the world so they could learn a lesson.  Then, as if nothing had been learned at all, Ahaz committed one more sin, which was to take gold and precious things from the house of the Lord to try to buy allegiance from Assyria, but Assyria did not help him when the enemy came to attack again.  At his death, Ahaz was buried without honor in Jerusalem. He was not thought worthy of a burial in the kings’ tombs (2 Chr. 28:27).   Surely Ahaz spoiled his own wardrobe and caused Judah to follow his evil example.

“If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land” (2 Chr. 7:14).


  1. What was a major sign God gave to show Ahaz that he was displeased with him and Judah (2 Chr. 28:4-5)?
  2. What did Ahaz cause Judah to do in their worship (2 Chr. 28:2-3)?
  3. Of what did God’s prophet (Oded) remind the children of Israel when they took Judah captive (2 Chr. 28:9-11)?
  4. What New Testament principle do we see in this example (James 2:13)?
  5. Who were the main ones who listened to God’s warning (2 Chr. 28:12)?
  6. What did the Samaritans do to show they believed God’s warning (2 Chr. 28:15)?
  7. What does God require us to do today to our enemies? ( 5:44-45)
  8. What further sin did Ahaz commit to show he had faith in men but not in God (2 Chr. 28:19-25)?
  9. What did God do after Ahaz’ death to show He was angry with him? (2 Chr. 28:27)?
  10. RESEARCH QUESTION:  Using Naves’ Topical Bible at:


Look up the various accounts of times when spoil was taken.

  • From the scriptures given, list the things that were taken.
  • Explain how the spoil was divided between the ones who fought and the ones who did not (of the Israelites, including priests and Levites).
  • Finally, explain how some of it was dedicated to the Lord and by whom.

In some Bible dictionaries, the word spoil will have a cross reference to take you to the word booty.  Notice the definition of spoil/booty: plunder and spoils of war. Booty consisted of everything of value taken in battle-gold and silver, clothing, food, household items, weapons, implements of agriculture, camels, sheep, cattle, as well as men, women, and children to be used as slaves (Gen. 14:11-12; Jer. 49:32).

-Beth Johnson



“And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul. And Saul took him that day and would let him go no more home to his father’s house. Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul. And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle” (1 Sam. 18:1-7).

What would cause Jonathan, the king’s son and natural heir to the throne of Israel, to strip himself of his robe, his sword, his bow and girdle and give it to someone far younger than he?  Jonathan’s spiritual clothing of faith and humility caused him to give away his physical clothing and his right to the throne of Israel.  Jonathan’s physical clothing was that of the king’s son and giving his royal clothing and kingly possessions to David showed his great love for a youth who was “a man after mine (God’s) own heart” (1 Sam. 13:14; Acts 13:22).

From the account of the defilement of Tamar in 2 Samuel 13:18, we know that daughters of kings were generally dressed in special apparel.   “And she had a garment of divers colours upon her: for with such robes were the king’s daughters that were virgins appareled.”  Even today, the only rulers who dress in special garments are kings and queens.  Jonathan, the son of Saul, wore robes that distinguished him from others in the land, but he was willing to give these to David when he understood that God ordained David to succeed his father.  There is never even the slightest hint that Jonathan was envious of David in anything.  Jonathan had everything to lose from David’s replacing his father, but he seems to have understood and accepted from the beginning that David was God’s elect.

We see Jonathan’s spiritual clothing of faith and humility when we see his actions toward David and consider the age difference between them.  Jonathan was not a young boy when he and David became friends.  We know that Jonathan was a grown man and a seasoned warrior within two years after his father (Saul) came to the throne.  “Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel, Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel; whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in mount Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent. And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear” (1 Sam. 13:1-3).

The Scriptures describe David as being quite young when he came to live with Saul.  He is referred to as both a youth and a stripling.  Even after Saul and Jonathan are dead, 2 Samuel 5:4 tells us, “David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.”  Jonathan loved David and believed that God had given David the kingdom.  “And he said unto him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee; and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee; and that also Saul my father knoweth” (1 Sam. 23:17).  Because of his faith in God, Jonathan was willing to show the world that he acknowledged God’s choice of a ruler to succeed his father.

When we consider the faith and humility of Jonathan, we can understand why he stripped himself of his kingly clothing and gave it all to David.   It was both to acknowledge God’s ordination of David as king of Israel, and because his great faith and humility before God.  Jonathan was clothed with humility like we are commanded to be, while his father was clothed with pride and self-will.


  1. RESEARCH QUESTION: How can we know that David and Jonathan were not both youths (approximately the same age) when David slew Goliath?
  2. Did the king’s daughters wear clothing like all the other girls in Israel?
  3. If the king’s daughters wore special clothing, what kind of clothing would the king’s sons wear?
  4. After David slew Goliath, what did Jonathan give to David?
  5. What was the significance of Jonathan’s giving such gifts to David?
  6. DISCUSSION QUESTION: How did Jonathan show that he did not try to hold on to any hope of being heir to the throne of Israel?
  7. Describe how a friendship based on the spiritual qualities rather than on physical attraction would last forever.
  8. How did Jonathan’s actions toward David show that he had faith in God?
  9. By what actions toward David did Jonathan show that he was clothed with humility?
  10. What kind of clothing was in Jonathan’s spiritual wardrobe?



“But Samuel ministered before the Lord, being a child, girded with a linen ephod.  Moreover his mother made him a little coat, and brought it to him from year to year, when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice” (1 Sam. 2:18-19).

Looking closely at this passage, we see several important things.  Primarily, we see Samuel was serving the Lord in the temple at a very young age.  Other passages about the life of Samuel tell us how Hannah prayed earnestly for him and vowed to give him back to the Lord if He would grant her a son.  Samuel’s birth, training and life were the direct results of Hannah’s love for God and her faithfulness to that vow made several years before.  Not only do we see Hannah’s love in training her son for that purpose, but we also see a further demonstration of a mother’s love in her yearly gift of a coat when she came to offer sacrifices with her husband at the feast.

Samuel wore an ephod, as did the priests with Ahimilech (1 Sam 22:18).  There is no question but that the ephod was at least closely associated with the priesthood. Apparently, it was not limited to the high priest.  Later in Samuel’s life, he was a judge, a seer and a prophet, but not a priest at this age.  However, as a descendent of Levi through Kohath (1 Chr. 6:38), the same tribe through which Aaron was descended, Samuel was priest’s helper (1 Chr. 6:1-31 Sam. 3:1).  His father was an Ephrathite, because he lived in Mt. Ephraim, but not because he was descended from the tribe of Ephraim.  Hannah may also have been of the tribe of Levi, but there is no record of it.  In any case, Samuel wore the ephod, which shows it was not limited to the high priest or even to the priest.  Samuel was a prophet just as David was a prophet (Acts 2:29-30), and therefore authorized as much as David to wear an ephod.

Concerning Samuel’s ancestry, see 1 Samuel 7:9.  “And Samuel took a sucking lamb and offered it for a burnt offering wholly unto the Lord: and Samuel cried unto the Lord for Israel; and the Lord heard him.”  We know that King Saul was condemned for offering a sacrifice, which only the priests and Levites were authorized to do.  Samuel was at least a Levite (if not a priest) or he would have been condemned along with King Saul.

How and when did little Samuel wear the coat his mother made him?  It is not generally known, but we may assume he used it to cover himself in cold weather or perhaps even to sleep in at night.  It may have been brightly colored like the coat Jacob made for Joseph, but we cannot say.  Nevertheless, it was a gift of love from a mother who never forgot the child she could not redeem (Num. 18:15) because of her vow.  Her faithfulness in keeping her vow was paramount, but her faithfulness in showing love both to her God and to her son was never laid aside.


  1. Why did all the firstborn males belong to the Lord (Exodus 13:15 18:15)?
  2. What was supposed to be redeemed, and how was that to be done (Ex 13:13-15)?
  3. Why did Jesus’ parents offer the sacrifice of birds after his birth (Luke 2:24Lev 12:26-8)?
  4. Give details of the vow Hannah made in her prayer (1 Sam. 1:11).
  5. How does the Nazarite vow compare ( 6:1-11)?
  6. How do we know that Hannah’s husband approved her vow (Nu 30:3-8I Sam 1:23-25)?


  1. From which tribe was Elkanah descended (Exodus 6:241 Sam. 1:11 Chr. 6:22-241 Chr. 6:33-381 Chr. 6:38)? Was this a tribe from which the priests were chosen?
  2. Why was it acceptable for Samuel to wear the ephod while in the service of the temple?
The Four Garments of all Priests

The first four garments that the priests wore in their daily activities before the Lord.  The breeches, coat, the mitre, and girdle, were to be worn by the all the priests and the high priest.

Each of these garments also was symbolic of certain acts of atonement.

The fine linen tunic – atonement for accidental killing or intentional murder.

The girdle or belt – atonement for a sinful heart, improper thoughts and theft

The turban or hat and the mitre of the High Priest – atonement for haughtiness or pride of countenance. (Ps. 10:4)

The breeches – atonement for unchastity and sexual transgressions (Matt 5:28)


  1. Why would Hannah want to have a son if she were to lose him as soon as he was weaned (1 Sam 1:6-8)?
  2. We know Hannah was diligent to teach and to prepare Samuel for his future work before he went to the temple.  After he was weaned, Hannah only saw Samuel once a year, but she continually demonstrated her love for him by bringing him the new coat she had made.  How was her work before and after he went to the temple showing love to him?  What lessons may we learn from this mother’s love?

Bible Encyclopedia: Hebrew Priesthood

(2) Woven Coat. The coat of fine linen or cotton. (Exod. xxxix :27) which was worn by of needlework’ (Exod. xxxix :29). Josephus de scribes it as often going round, four lingers broad, but so loosely woven that it might be taken for the skin of a serpent; and that it was embroidered with flowers of scarlet, and purple, and blue, but that the warp was nothing but linen. The beginning of its circumvolution was at the breast; and when it had gone often round, it was there tied, and hung loosely down to the ankles while the priest was not engaged in any laborious service, for in that position it appeared in the most men in general (Gen. xxxvii :3); also by women (2 Sam. xiii:18; Cant. v :3), next to the skin. It was to be of woven work. Josephus states that it reached down to the feet, and sat close to the body ; and had sleeves, which were tied fast to the arms; and was girded to the breast a little above the elbows by a girdle. It had a narrow aperture about the neck, and was tied with certain strings hanging down from the edge over the breast and back, and was fastened above each shoulder (Antiq. iii, 7, 2). But this garment, in the case of the priests and high-priest, was to be broidered (Exod. :4). A broidered coat, by which Gesenius understands a coat of cloth worked in checkers or cells.



Modern Polygamist Family

“If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish” (Exod. 21:10).

In the New Testament, there is no provision for multiple wife families; however polygamy was practiced during Old Testament times–between Genesis and Malachi.

Christian women today can only imagine what it might be like to be a minor wife or a concubine. First of all, poverty would be the driving factor in being sold as a slave-cum-wife to some man who wanted more than one. The choice would not be theirs, but there was protection for Hebrew women even under the Old Testament Law. A Hebrew (man or woman) might be sold as a bond servant in consequence either of debt (Lev. 25:39) or of the commission of theft (Exod. 22:3). However, his servitude could not be enforced for more than six full years. If a Hebrew male servant were sold, he had to be released again after 6 years unless it was his choice to remain a slave (Exod. 21:2).

A Hebrew woman was not to be treated the same way. She could not be sent out again after the husband had “humbled” her (Deut. 21:14Ex 21:7). She was to remain his wife even if he did not like her. This gave Hebrew women a measure of protection from being sold to first one stranger and another or left without food, clothing or the “duty of marriage.” See Deuteronomy 15:17 also. Any wardrobe her husband would provide might be less than wonderful, but her body would be covered and she would have food to satisfy her basic needs (similar to 1 Tim. 6:8).

The Lord has a similar law in the New Testament era. The Holy Spirit, through Paul, speaks of the duty of marriage for Christians today. When we make our vows of marriage we do not own our own bodies anymore (1 Cor. 7:1-5). Our bodies belong to our mates. Similarly, in the OT, because of this basic principle or “duty in marriage,” the Hebrew polygamist could not by law refuse to give the wife her rights. Only if he found something “unseemly” in her was he able to send her back to her father. Even then, if her father could prove she had been a virgin when he sold her, she could not be sent away or shamed publicly.

There are many examples of concubines being part of a multi-wife family under the Mosaic Law. The accounts show such customs were both authorized (2 Sam. 12:8) and practiced (Gen. 21:9-10Gen. 37:2Judges 19:3-5). Other accounts dealing with concubines are found in multiple scriptures (Gen. 22:20-24Gen. 25:1Gen. 30:3-5Gen. 35:22Gen. 36:121 Chro. 1:32; 1 Chro. 2:42-50 and 1 Chro.7:14). As we study these passages, we are able to see God‟s protection of women in the strict laws made for concubines (Exod. 21:7-11Lev. 19:20-22Deut. 21:10-14). Even though their children could not necessarily inherit from their master (Gen. 15:4Gen. 21:10Gen. 25:1-61 Ch 1:32-33), the Hebrew women were never to be left destitute of food, clothing and the duty of marriage.

What a blessing Christian women have under the Law of Christ! We are treasured and honored as the one-and-only wife, which should make our responsibility and our dedication to our husbands even greater. We should not expect the finest clothing or jewels (1 Tim. 6:8), but be ever grateful that the Lord has given us first place under our husbands in our marriage relationships. Then we have that wonderful hope of a place in eternity as the bride of Christ. What a beautiful concept that becomes, as we consider our place in eternity.


  1. What was/is a polygamist?
  2. Was polygamy a sin for the man under the Mosaic Law?
  3. When could a man send a wife back to her father?
  4. When could he send her out to be another man’s wife? (Deut. 24:1-4)
  5. When could a father sue the daughter’s husband for damages ( Deut. 22:13-21)?
  6. What three things did every husband have to provide for his wife whether or not he liked her?
  7. Could a Hebrew female slave be treated the same way a Hebrew male slave was treated?  Why not?
  8. What material blessings does God promise Christian men and women today?
  9. If someone asks us for financial help, what should be our consideration (1 Tim. 6:8)?
  10. With what should everyone be content (Luke 3:14; 4:11Heb. 13:51 Tim. 6:8)?



During the Israelite conquest of Canaan, Gibeonite ambassadors used falsehood and deception to lead Joshua and the elders of Israel to believe that they came from a distant region, when in fact they lived in the immediate vicinity of Canaan. In order to save themselves from extinction by the armies of Israel, the Gibeonites craftily deceived Joshua and the leaders of Israelites into agreeing to establish a treaty to let them live (Josh. 9:13-16). By using old clothes and moldy bread, the ambassadors misrepresented the distance they had traveled from their habitat (Josh. 9:3-6). Without asking counsel of the Lord and following their own judgment, the leaders of Israel made a treaty with them. Assuming these men were telling the truth about where they lived, they put confidence in the Gibeonites‟ claim, partook of their victuals, made an alliance with them and ultimately found themselves betrayed (Josh. 9:13-15).

Kirjath-Jearim, also called Baalah, was one of the four cities of the Gibeonites. The inhabitants of Kirjath-Jearim were not struck down on account of the covenant made, but they were put under servitude (Joshua 9:17 with 9:3-27). Joshua and the elders of Israel behaved magnanimously in their response to the
‟ deception, and rather than kill them, they let them become servants to hew wood and draw water for the house of the Lord forever (Josh. 9:22-27).

The Gibeonites seem to have had a law or a government somewhat like the Israelites had under the Mosaic Law (Josh. 9:11). This would indicate the people had some measure of respect for the Lord. Six kings made war upon the Gibeonites and were defeated and killed. Notice Joshua at Gibeon (Josh. 10). Regarding the kings who struck them, the account tells that the “…the LORD cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they (the six kings and their armies) died. “They were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.”

Several other things, both good and bad, may be known about the Gibeonite nation. One is that the tribe of Benjamin did not avenge the crime of the Gibeonites against the Levite’s concubine, and a war followed (Judg. 19). Ismaiah was a Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4) and was one of David’s mighty men. King Saul killed the Gibeonites; a crime avenged by the death of seven of his sons (2 Sam. 21:1-9). As a just retribution for Saul’s crime, it was King David who consigned seven sons of Saul to the Gibeonites to be killed to atone for Saul’s persecution of them (2 Sam. 21:1-14). Mephibosheth was a son of Saul by Rizpah, whom David did not surrender to be killed (2 Sam. 21:8-9). Hananiah was a Gibeonite prophet who uttered false prophecies in the temple during the reign of Zedekiah (Jer. 28). Pay particular attention to Hananiah’s sin and the resulting punishment by God in verses 10-16. Melatiah was a Gibeonite who assisted in repairing the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7).

“And when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done unto Jericho and to Ai, They did work wilily, and went and made as if they had been ambassadors, and took old sacks upon their asses, and wine bottles, old, and rent, and bound up; And old shoes and clouted upon their feet, and old garments upon them; and all the bread of their provision was dry and moldy” (Joshua 9:3-5).

The Gibeonites figure notably throughout the Israelite history with some good and some evil results. The Shechemites and Gibeonites were Hivite families of Genesis 34:2Josh. 9:1711:19). Although they had some respectable men in their nation, their presence was ever a reminder of the error made in allowing them to dwell among them.


1.   As a foundation for this study, discuss two commands that had been given to the Israelites to govern such decisions:

·      Utterly destroy the inhabitants of Canaan (Deut. 7:1-5).

·      Do not swear falsely [i.e. keep your vows] (Lev. 19:12).

2.   What deceit did the Gibeonites use to deceive Joshua and the Children of Israel (Josh. 9:3-5)? Why?

3.   How were they received by the princes of Israel (Josh. 9:14-19)?

4.   Give two reasons why there was a conflict between the princes of the congregation and the people. (Josh. 9:14-15)?

5.   It is obvious from reading the account that the Gibeonites lied and purposefully deceived the leaders of Israel. How could Joshua and the elders have known what to do (Deut. 7:1-5)?

6.   Once the Israelites realized they had been deceived into disobeying the command of God, what other dilemma did they face (Josh. 9:19)? Why could they not go back on their word and break the covenant (Lev. 19:12)?


7.   Under the Mosaic Law, all vows, covenants, leagues, treaties and promises were viewed as binding. Search the following scriptures to see just how important these were before God: Leviticus 19:12Deut. 23:22Deut. 23:21-23Num. 30:1-2Num. 30:12-14Num. 30:15Prov. 20:25Eccl. 5:1-6Gal. 3:15 and Prov. 19:2.

8.   Why was Joshua forced to make peace with the Gibeonites (Deut. 20:10-18)?

9.   Who else worked wilily to save himself and his nation (1 Kings 20:29-37)? To get the whole context, read all of 1 Kings, chapter 20.

10.      What Gentile lady worked wilily to secure safety from being destroyed by the Israelite armies (Josh 2:9-14)?

11.      Did any city or nation make peace with the children of Israel (Josh. 11:19)?

12.      How do we know that God was not pleased with what King Saul did against the Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:1-9)? What did King David do to make peace with them?

13.      How does Jeremiah 18:7-8 apply to this situation?

14.      Using the account in 1 Kings 13:7-19, tell how the young prophet should have reacted to the lie told him by the old prophet. What appears to have caused him to fail the test to be faithful?

15.      What special things did God provide under the Law of Moses to help the Israelite leaders to make righteous judgments (Exod. 28:30Num. 27:211 Sam. 23:9-121 Sam. 30:7-82 Sam. 2:12 Sam. 5:19).

16.      Discuss what kinds of decisions they made in each case. Could Joshua have used these methods?

17.      How did the sincere people of Israel seek to gain God’s favor and obtain a favorable answer to their needs (Ezra 8:21)?

18.      What transgression did King Saul commit against the Lord and why did he die (1 Chr. 10:13-14)? Was God happy when His rebellious children did not ask counsel of the Him (Isa. 30:1-2)? What was their sin?

19.      Today, in the NT, how are covenant breakers described (Rom. 1:28-32)? How will obeying James 1:19 help us to avoid this sin?

20.      What is Jesus’ admonition (Matt. 5:33-37)?

21.      What other principles can be used to govern our decisions (Prov. 3:5-62027Hosea 4:6)?

22.      Why did Paul, with the apostles and elders, ask counsel of the Lord (Acts 15:1-213-29)?

23.      What must we remember as we make decisions about things people teach in religion (Gal. 1:8-91 Cor. 2:4-5Phil. 4:6 and Eph 6:18)?

24.      Consider the command not to be unequally yoked with unbelievers or to make friends with them (2 Cor. 6:141 Cor. 15:33). See also: 1 Kings 11 for examples of how Solomon violated this principle. If we make a covenant of marriage with one who has deceived us, do we still have to honor our vows?

25.      **What if someone deceives us? How can we know what we should do? Remember the clearly stated problem in Joshua 9:14. “…asked not counsel at the mouth of the LORD.” We need to be very careful not to be deceived, by knowing well and seeking out the counsel of the Lord; otherwise we may have to bear some unpleasant consequences.

–Beth Johnson