Lesson 2

Deut. 5:1-4

  1. And Moses called all Israel, and said unto them, Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and keep, and do them.
  2. The LORD our God made a covenant with us in Horeb.
  3. The LORD made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day.
  4. The LORD talked with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire,

Note particularly in verse 3 that God did not make the covenant with anyone but Israel.

Deut. 7: 12-15 says “IF ye hearken….

12 Wherefore it shall come to pass, if ye hearken to these judgments, and keep, and do them, that the LORD thy God shall keep unto thee the covenant and the mercy which he sware unto thy fathers:

13 And he will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee: he will also bless the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep, in the land which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee.

14 Thou shalt be blessed above all people: there shall not be male or female barren among you, or among your cattle.

15 And the LORD will take away from thee all sickness, and will put none of the evil diseases of Egypt, which thou knowest, upon thee; but will lay them upon all them that hate thee.

Deut. 11:22-28—IF ye shall diligently keep all these commandments….

22 For if ye shall diligently keep all these commandments which I command you, to do them, to love the LORD your God, to walk in all his ways, and to cleave unto him;

23 Then will the LORD drive out all these nations from before you, and ye shall possess greater nations and mightier than yourselves.

24 Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea shall your coast be.

25 There shall no man be able to stand before you: for the LORD your God shall lay the fear of you and the dread of you upon all the land that ye shall tread upon, as he hath said unto you.

26 Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse;

27 A blessing, if ye obey the commandments of the LORD your God, which I command you this day:

28 And a curse, if ye will not obey the commandments of the LORD your God, but turn aside out of the way which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not known.


  1. What law were the Israelites under when they first entered Egypt (Gen. 47:11)?
  2. Which law did the twelve tribes of Israel submit to while they were in Egypt for 400 years (Gen. 47:11)?
  3. What law were the Israelites under the first day they crossed over the Red Sea?
  4. What would happen to any nation if it had no national laws?
  5. What law did God give to govern the physical nation of Israel (Deut. 5:1-3)?
  6. What did God call the law that He gave to the nation of Israel (Heb. 8:7-9)?
  7. For whom did God make the Law of Moses (Deut. 5:2)?
  8. For whom did God not make the Law of Moses (Deut. 5:3)?
  9. Did God give the Law of Moses to anyone but the physical nation of Israel (Gal. 5:1-4)?
  10. What did God promise the Israelites He would give them if they kept his covenant (Deut. 11:22-24)?
  11. Which non-Israelite prophets, who prophesied before or during the time the Jews, were not under the Law of Moses? The non-Jewish nations (Gentiles) were not under the law of Moses, but God dealt with them through prophets.  Which prophets (specific prophets) would this have included?

You might think of a timeline which would look something like this:

  • Prophets ============================================>Christ
  • Mosaic (OT) Law =====================>Christ
  • Christ ===========>Today
  1. Consider that Abraham is our example of faith. Was he under the Law of Moses?  You may have to use the timeline here.
  2. Of all the examples of faith in Heb. 11:1-40,  how many of those lived under the Law of Moses?
  3. Reading from 1 Cor. 10:1-5,  what put the Israelites “into Moses?”



People have been puzzled for generations about whether both Old and New Testaments are still in effect today. Do we have to obey both of them? Do we still have to go to Jerusalem three times a year? Do we still have to offer animal sacrifice for our sins? There is an Old Testament and a New Testament (Heb. 7:22; Heb. 8:1-5; Heb. 8:6-13; Heb. 9:14-15; Heb. 12:24).

Various labels have been given to the Old Testament Law. It is sometimes called a covenant, an agreement, a testament, the Mosaic Law, the commandments, etc. Each of these is a correct label for the laws that governed God’s chosen people between Mt. Sinai and the death of Christ. The laws are found in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. Some classify the book of Genesis as a book of law, but it is truly the history of the Israelite nation. The Mosaic Law formed a constitution on which the civil government of the Israelites was founded, and according to which rulers were required to rule (Deut. 17:18-20; 2 Kings 11:12; 2 Chro. 23:11). It was received by the disposition of angels (Deut. 33:2; Psa. 68:17; Acts 7:53; Gal. 3:19; Heb. 2:2-3).

(from Nave’s Topical Bible, Electronic Database Copyright (c)1990 by Biblesoft and TriStar Publishing)

We do not in any way want to discredit God or the way He worked with the Israelite nation before the Cross. We know that God’s wisdom, understanding and righteousness are unsurpassed from the beginning of time. His commandments in the Old Law were wise and a glory and honor to His name. By inspiration of God, Moses said:

Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, even as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it. Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people. For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for? And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day (Deut. 4:5-8)?

We know it takes a righteous Lawgiver to give righteous laws to His people. We also know that the righteousness of the OT Law is fulfilled in us (Rom. 8:4) if we walk after the Spirit and not after the flesh. Do we make void the Law through faith? Romans 3:31 says we establish the law. Romans 13:8-10 says love is the fulfillment of the Law.

Using the scriptures, answer the following questions:

  1. What are the various labels for the agreement which God made with the Israelites?
  2. Which books contain the Law of Moses?
  3. How was the Law a glory to God and His chosen nation?
  4. Consider the English words ‘covenant’ and ‘testament’ Consider the English words ‘covenant’ and ‘testament’ (Heb. 7:22; Heb. 8:6).  Do they mean the same thing?
  5. Did the Israelites initially agree to keep their part of the covenant (Exo. 20:18-19; Deut. 5:2-327)?
  6. How did God give Moses the pattern for the tabernacle (Exo. 26:30; Exo. 39:32; Exo. 39:42-43; Acts 7:44; Heb. 8:5)?
  7. What is now established on better promises (Heb. 8:6)?
  8. Explain why there needed to be a second covenant (Heb. 7:12).
  9. Did God give a reason for making a second covenant (Heb. 8:7)?
  10. Who was the mediator (one who brought) of the second covenant (Heb. 9:14-15; Heb. 12:24; 1 Tim. 2:5)?
  11. Does God declare that one covenant would be better than the other (Heb. 8:6)?
  12. Does God find fault with the first covenant he made (Heb. 8:7-8)?
  13. What fault did God find with the first covenant (Heb. 8:9)?
  14. Did God promise to make the second covenant different from the first covenant (Heb. 8:8-9)?
  15. Did the second covenant have any laws for the people to obey (Heb. 8:10)?
  16. How many would know God under the second covenant (Heb. 8:11)?
  17. At the time of writing the book of Hebrews, what was happening to the first covenant (Heb. 8:13)?)?
  18. Considering that Jesus said He did not come to destroy the Law, was the OT itself ready to vanish away or was the OT authority ready to vanish away? Find a scripture that would prove whether or not the first covenant has disappeared completely? Explain.




By the time we finish this study, we should know the characteristics of God’s two covenants with His chosen people. We should know the purpose behind His laws and the difference between how He deals with His people in the Old and New Testaments. 


The Old Testament was given to the Israelite nation after they left Egypt.

  • Law of Works
  • Circumcision
  • Physical Sacrifices
  • Cleansing of Flesh

The New Testament is for a spiritual nation—Christians.

  • Law of Faith
  • Circumcision of Heart
  • Spiritual Sacrifices
  • Cleansing of Heart
  • Belief in Jesus

OT-NT DIFFERENCES is a mini-course. By that you may understand that the lessons are not as long as they are in some other courses. However, the memory work (listed at the bottom of this introduction) should be studied regularly in order to learn those valuable facts.


  1. You will need a King James Version (KJV) Bible for all lessons. All questions and answers will be from the King James Version.
  2. You will need a good concordance. If you do not have a Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, you can look up passages on Be very sure to reset the default version to KJV.





  • Genesis (more history than law)
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy


  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • I Samuel
  • II Samuel
  • I Kings
  • II Kings
  • I Chronicles
  • II Chronicles
  • Ezra
  • Nehemiah
  • Esther


  • Job
  • Psalms
  • Proverbs
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Song of Solomon


  • Isaiah
  • Jeremiah
  • Lamentations
  • Ezekiel
  • Daniel


  • Hosea
  • Joel
  • Amos
  • Obadiah
  • Jonah
  • Micah
  • Nahum
  • Habakkuk
  • Zephaniah
  • Haggai
  • Zechariah
  • Malachi



  • Matthew
  • Mark
  • Luke
  • John



  • Romans
  • I Corinthians
  • II Corinthians
  • Galatians
  • Ephesians
  • Philippians
  • Colossians
  • I Thessalonians
  • II Thessalonians
  • I Timothy
  • II Timothy
  • Titus
  • Philemon
  • Hebrews (Author unknown, probably Paul)


  • James
  • I Peter
  • II Peter
  • I John
  • II John
  • III John
  • Jude

PROPHECY – Revelation

Students must also know:

The New Testament gives Christians an accurate, inspired, historical, written record of the founding of the Christian religion. That record contains:

  • The coming of Christ.
  • His life on this earth.
  • His death, burial and resurrection.
  • The establishment of the church.
  • The growth of the church.
  • The inspired writings of God’s witnesses, the apostles.
  • The promise that God’s children (Christians) will emerge victorious over death.


Here are a few references to show the Lord has always been interested in all souls, even though the Jews were his “chosen” people.

Jeremiah gives a picture of God’s work through his prophets.

“The prophets that have been before me and before thee of old prophesied both against many countries, and against great kingdoms, of war, and of evil, and of pestilence. 9 The prophet which prophesieth of peace, when the word of the prophet shall come to pass, then shall the prophet be known, that the LORD hath truly sent him” (Jer. 28:8-9).

The prophet’s primary work was to rebuke Israel for evil and try to get them to return to him.

Israel was not the only nation who had one of God’s prophets.

God looks through all the earth for those who seek him.

“The LORD looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God” (Psa. 14:2).

God sent Jeremiah personally to many nations to prophesy.

“For thus saith the LORD God of Israel unto me; Take the wine cup of this fury at my hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it. 16 And they shall drink, and be moved, and be mad, because of the sword that I will send among them.  17 Then took I the cup at the LORD’s hand, and made all the nations to drink, unto whom the LORD had sent me: 18 To wit, Jerusalem, and the cities of Judah, and the kings thereof, and the princes thereof, to make them a desolation, an astonishment, an hissing, and a curse; as it is this day; 19 Pharaoh king of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people; 20 And all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod, 21 Edom, and Moab, and the children of Ammon, 21 And all the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the isles which are beyond the sea,  22 Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that are in the utmost corners, 24 And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert, 25  And all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes, 26 And all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth: and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them (Jer. 25:15-26).

Jonah prophesied to Nineveh at God’s command.

God prophesied to many nations in the scriptures themselves.


“The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah the son of Amoz did see” (Isa. 13:1).


“The burden of Moab Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid waste, and brought to silence; because in the night Kir of Moab is laid waste, and brought to silence;” (Isa. 15:1).


“The burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is taken away from being a city, and it shall be a ruinous heap” (Isa. 17:1).


“The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at his presence, and the heart of Egypt shall melt in the midst of it” (Isa. 19:1).

Elam and Media

“The burden of the desert of the sea. As whirlwinds in the south pass through; so it cometh from the desert, from a terrible land. 2. A grievous vision is declared unto me; the treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O Elam: besiege, O Media; all the sighing thereof have I made to cease” (Isa. 21:1-2).

Dumah is probably connected with Syria

“The burden of Dumah. He calleth to me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night?” (Isa. 21:11).


“The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim” (Isa. 21:13).


“The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them” (Isa. 23:1).


“The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite” (Nah. 1:1).


“Concerning the Ammonites, thus saith the LORD; Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why then doth their king inherit Gad, and his people dwell in his cities?” (Jer. 49:1).


“Fear, and the pit, and the snare, shall be upon thee, O inhabitant of Moab, saith the LORD” (Jer. 48:43).


“The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles; Against Egypt, against the army of Pharaoh-necho king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates in Carchemish, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon smote in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah” (Jer. 46:1-2).


“The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Philistines, before that Pharaoh smote Gaza” (Jer. 47:1).


“Against Moab thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Woe unto Nebo! for it is spoiled: Kiriathaim is confounded and taken: Misgab is confounded and dismayed” (Jer. 48:1).


“The word that the LORD spake against Babylon and against the land of the Chaldeans by Jeremiah the prophet…” (Jer. 50:1).

The whole book of Obadiah is a prophecy of Edom, not Israel

“The vision of Obadiah. Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning Edom; We have heard a rumour from the LORD, and an ambassador is sent among the heathen, Arise ye, and let us rise up against her in battle” (Obadiah 1).

–Beth Johnson



And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha: Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews. Pilate answered, What I have written I have written (John 19:17-22).

The term, “King of the Jews” is used 18 times in the New Testament scriptures—each time referring to Jesus.  At the time of Jesus’ birth (Matt. 2:2), there was a common belief that some remarkable person was about to emerge in Judea. The Jews were anxiously looking for the coming of the Messiah. By computing the time mentioned by Daniel (Dan. 9:25-27), they knew that the period was approaching when He would appear. The person they were looking for was supposedly going to be a temporal prince, and they were expecting that He would deliver them from Roman bondage. It was natural that this expectation should spread into other countries. At the time, many Jews lived in Egypt, Rome or Greece.  Also, many had gone to Eastern countries, and in every place they carried their sacred writings, and talked of their expectation that some noteworthy person was about to arise.

The Jews were all looking for the kingdom of God (Luke 3:15; 17:20; John 1:41). Daniel had prophesied the world-ruling kingdom of God would be established in the days of Rome (Dan. 2:44). By the time Christ was born, Rome had ruled the world for about 80 years, and the Jews and even many in the world knew the kingdom could come any time. If the Jews could find the king, they could find the kingdom (John 1:41; John 3:28; John 4:28-29; John 4:42; John 7:41; John 10:24). Although the Jews looked for the kingdom, because of envy, they crucified the very one the multitudes identified as their king.

Whether or not Pilate was convinced of what he wrote, he used three languages to write for the world to see that Jesus was the king of the Jews (Luke 23:38)! Pilate rejected the Jews’ demand to alter the writing or remove it (John 19:22).

Even the thief testified that Jesus’ kingdom would be set up after His death (Luke 23:42). Peter accused the Jews of crucifying their king (Acts 4:10), and on the day of Pentecost, Peter proved that God had foreordained the king of the kingdom would be put to death (Act 2:23). It was not until after His death that Jesus was crowned with all power in heaven and earth (Matt. 28:18). Jesus is king over His spiritual kingdom. Only His citizens can claim Him as their king (John 18:36). Jesus was made both Lord and Christ. The name Christ means anointed one. Jesus is both Lord and king (Acts 2:36). He is Lord over all men (Acts 10:36).

Jesus has been exalted with authority above every authority not only on this earth but also in heaven (Matt. 28:18). He is approved as Lord not only in this life but also in that which to come (Eph. 4:21). Jesus is not seated as king of a physical nation (John 8:23). He is king of the Jews but only in a spiritual sense (Rom. 9:6-7). His kingdom is not of this world; it is not a physical kingdom (John 18:36). He is king of all people who are spiritual Jews (Rom. 2:28-29). He is king only of those who are translated into His marvelous kingdom (Col. 1:13).

The king of the Jews has made all His subjects priests to offer spiritual sacrifices (1 Pet. 2:5-9; Heb. 13:15). If His people suffer with Him, He will make them kings to reign with Him (2 Tim. 2:12). If His citizens overcome the battle with Satan He will give them power over the nations as He received of His Father (Rev. 2:26-27). If His citizens overcome they will reign with Him forever and ever (Rev. 22:5).

Blessed be the King of the Jews! (Luke 19:38).

–Beth Johnson